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21世纪以来中德法学教育实践性导向改革的比较与相互启示

 

摘要:基于法律市场的冲击,实践性成为中德两国法学教育改革的共同方向,但两国改革的内容不尽相同。在中德两国法学教育的实践性导向改革实施过程中均存在争议,主要原因包括法学教育的理想模式尚未定型、法学教育多元目标之间协调困难、不同法律职业对法学教育的要求不同、法学教育受制于“重理论和文本,轻实践”的法治传统以及法学教育受制于司法改革的发展。中德两国法学教育实践性导向改革均存在问题:中国的问题主要体现为校内法律技能培养不足、校外实习收效甚微以及司法考试后的职业培训不具有统一性等;德国的问题主要体现为法务实习成本过高、等待法务实习的时间过长、某些实践性培训项目的成效不大、实务课程规范过于抽象等。未来,两国可以在相互启示与借鉴中寻求法学教育的持续性发展:德国对中国的启示包括建设多元化、规范化的校外实践教学制度、进一步增强法律职业资格考试对法学教育实践性的考查等;中国对德国的启示包括硕士层次的分类培养、加强师资的实践性培养等。
关键词:法学教育  实践性导向  法律市场 法律职业
 
 
The Comparison and Mutual Reflections of the Practice-Oriented Reform of the Legal Education in China and Germany since the 21st Century
Peng Haiqing
 
Abstract: Facing the impact of the legal market, practicality has become the common direction of legal education reform in China and Germany. However, the measures of the reforms in the two countries are different. There are some controversies in implementing the practice-oriented reform of legal education in China and Germany. The main reasons are as follows: the ideal model of legal education has not been formed. The coordination between multiple objectives of legal education is difficult to coordinate, and different legal professions have different requirements on legal education. Legal education is subject to the education tradition of “focusing on theories and overlooking practices" and legal education is subject to the development of judicial reform in the country. On the other hand, the practice-oriented reform of law education in both China and Germany is problematic. The problems in China are mainly manifested in: inadequate training of legal skills in schools, little effect of internship in schools, and non-uniformity of professional training after judicial examination. The problems in Germany are mainly reflected in: the high cost of legal practice, the long waiting time for legal internship, the ineffectiveness of some practical training programs and the abstraction of practical curriculum assessment requirements. In the future, the two countries can seek the sustainable development of legal education through mutual reflections and references. The reflections of German legal education to China includes: the construction of a diversified and standardized off-campus practical teaching system and the further enhancement of the legal professional qualification examination on the practicality of legal education. China's reflections to Germany in legal education includes the classified training programs of graduates at the master's level and the practical training of the teaching staff.
Key Words: legal education, practice-orientation, legal market, legal profession

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